A citation should contain all the necessary information to identify your source and lead others to it.  Examples of typical citations are shown below, but there are many variations depending on the type of source and style used.  Consult the Publication Manual of the  American Psychological Association, 6th ed. for details.

Book Citation - APA Style:



  Journal Article Citation - APA Style:

Electronic Journal Article Citation with DOI

A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a unique string of numbers and letters assigned to a source, most commonly electronic sources.  When the DOI is given for your source, it is the only retrieval information you need to provide in your citation.
Harrison, J. (2008, September). The vagaries of vegetarianism. Ratio, 21(3),  286-299. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9329.2007.00402.x

Journal Articles from a Library Database

These can be cited exactly like the print version. According to the APA Publication Manual, it is not necessary to include the name of the database. However, your instructor may want this information to make it easier to find the article. See OWL for more suggestions on this; scroll down to Article from a Database. If in doubt, check with your instructor.


                     Website citation, with no author or date - APA style:

Many webpages do not include author information or the date of publication. If there is no author, the title of the page is listed first, followed by the date, in parentheses. If there is no date, use n.d. Do not include the date the webpage was visited unless the information is likely to change, as a blog or a wiki.